Parts of the system:
– Forward cache located outside the web server’s network
– Network-aware forward cache that only caches heavily accessed items
– Proxy server that evaluates HTTP headers and chooses whether to store web content
– Reverse cache that sits in front of web servers and reduces peak server load
– Reverse cache usually a content delivery network (CDN) that retains copies of web content

HTTP options:
– Freshness mechanism allows a response to be used without re-checking it on the origin server
– Freshness can be controlled by the server and the client
– Validation mechanism checks whether a cached response is still good after it becomes stale
– Invalidation occurs when a URL associated with a cached response receives a POST, PUT, or DELETE request

Legality:
– The DMCA added rules to exempt system operators from copyright liability for caching
– This exemption is found in the United States Code (17 U.S.C. §: 512)

Server-side software:
– Apache HTTP Server is server-side web caching software
– Apache HTTP Server operates in both forward and reverse modes
– Compatible with various operating systems such as OS X, Linux, Unix, FreeBSD, Solaris, Novell NetWare, and more
– Available under the Apache 2.0 license
– Other server-side web caching software options exist for Windows, Unix-like systems, and other operating systems

Further reading:
– ‘Web Proxy Servers’ by Ari Luotonen (Prentice Hall, 1997)
– ‘Web Caching’ by Duane Wessels (OReilly and Associates, 2001)
– ‘Web Caching and Replication’ by Michael Rabinovich and Oliver Spatschak (Addison Wesley, 2001)
– These books provide additional information on web caching
– ISBNs are provided for each book.  Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_cache

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